Material testing is experimental testing to produce information about materials.
Material data, such as the modulus of elasticity, is produced by performing a material test. However, it is not only material data for construction that is produced through material testing. Information on the purity of produced materials is continuously produced during production. Wrecked products often have to be examined by material testing.
A distinction is made between destructive and non-destructive testing, which refers to whether the sample is destroyed by the test or not. When examining products, you usually start with a non-destructive test, as the sample is then preserved for any subsequent examination.
Material testing is often performed according to international and national standards. In the case of destructive testing, the test is destroyed and should therefore only be performed if it is not necessary to perform more tests that are affected by this fact.
Impact strength, tensile strength, tensile strength and compressive strength are examples of material data that are produced by destructive testing. Electron microscopy (for example SEM as in the picture) is another example of destructive testing because the sample piece must be cut, ground, polished and etched in order to be studied.